In environment and ecology natural resources play a significant role. There are number of types of natural resources which include flora, fauna and various species of plants, land, water, forests, wildlife, agriculture and forestry. Natural environment also includes minerals, `energy resources environment etc. as students of environment and ecology we are concerned with conservation and management of Natural Resources; Land; Land Use and Abuse; Rural Land-use Planning; Urban Land-use Planning; Management of Land; Water Requirements and Uses; Problems and Management of Water; Future Needs and Alternate Sources of Water; Agriculture; Forestry; Importance of Forests; Depletion of Forests; Management of Forests; Rangeland; Importance of Rangeland; Wildlife; Importance of Wildlife; Wildlife Management; Minerals and Their Characteristics; Development and Conservation of Minerals; Efforts to Conserve Mineral Resources; Conventional and Energy Sources; Non-Conventional Inexhaustible Energy Sources; Conservation of Energy.
Ecological Sub-Divisions of India includes The Himalayan Mountain System; The Himalayan Foothills; The High Altitude Region of Western Himalayas; The Eastern Himalayan Sub-Zone; The Peninsular India Sub-Region; Peninsular India and the Drainage Basin; The Indian Desert; The Tropical Rain Forest Regions.
SPECIES OF PLANT AND ETHNOBOTANICAL ENVIRONMENT: As discussed earlier as a result of many factors there is threat to Plant Species; areas Vulnerable to Rarity and Extinction of Species in India; Himalaya and Eastern India; Rajasthan and Gujarat; Gangetic Plain; Peninsular India; Andaman & Nicobar Islands; Indian Flora and Fauna need greater attention.Indian Ethno botany in India is rich. Recent Studies in methodologies of Ethno botanical Research; Other Aspects of Ethno botany. National Park; Sanctuary. Dogra (1998)has stated these aspects very .
An important aspect of Environment and Ecology. Environmentally Sound Management of Biotechnology calls for our understanding of what is Biodiversity? Why is Biological Diversity Important? What Threatens Biological Diversity? Nevertheless Biodiversity is a Vital Resource for All Humankind.
* Forests, Wildlife and People (Dogra, 1998)
STAGNATION IN RICE YIELDS IN INDIA - A DIAGNOSIS OF THE CURRENT SITUATION AND OUTLINE OF AN APPROACH TO RAISE YIELDS ( R.R Richharia and Govindswami , 1978)
The narrow genetic base and wider adaptability concept, emphasized and introduced exclusively during the past 25 years, beginning from 1965 -66 and neglect of the bulk of the indigenous varieties, are the main causes of stagnation in rice productivity in India, on the whole, except in some selected areas where inputs and facilities are available in abundance. The exclusive dependence on High Yielding Varieties (HYVs), with exotic dwarfing gene of Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen (DGWG) through rice varieties Taichung (Native) I and IR 8 leading to the evolution and introduction of 312 such HYVs in rice fields of India has not only brought about genetic uniformity abut also vulnerability to diseases and pests. It is, therefore, self evident, that the only way to promote improvements in rice productivity in the long run is to maintain and utilize genetic diversity existing in the indigenous rice cultivars, which diversity still exists today, but is rapidly diminishing. It is estimated that approximately 2 lac such genetic units (ecotypes) exist in India, spread over 41 million hectares, producing 60 million tones of rice annually.
A great advantage also associated with the local indigenous rice germplasm is that it is adjusted over a long period to the ecosystem of the region, including the environmental fluctuations and vagaries of monsoon, thus ensuing minimum levels of output, even in bad years. Local cultivars are also supportive of sustainable systems of agriculture.
What is important is to upgrade the cultivars generically, by genetically
superior types in individual cultivars and further, introduce hybrid vigor
by developing hybrid rices, utilizing clonal propagation technology*,
which the rice farmers themselves may practice. A short training will
enable them to attain proficiency in the technology.
Therefore, resuming location-specified ecological breeding (as was being done prior to 1965-66), including cultivation of hybrid rice's, involving locally available indigenous genes, is the only way to ensure steady progress in raising rice productivity economically. The local genetic diversity, its collection, maintenance and utilisation, using modern methods, is therefore the basis of this approach.
To increase rice productivity in individual rice fields at the village
level, and "action plan"* was drawn up by me in 1983-84. This
plan also aims at collection and maintenance of local germplasm of crop
plants to be known as local gene banks, coupled with a location-specific
breeding programme. This action plan is of total relevance to the approach,
This approach is based on my long experience, working with indigenous and exotic genes of rice (Oryza sativa) from different parts of the world where rice is grown, including those of West African rice (Oryza glaberrima).
During thee long years, commencing form 1942, I was associated with a wide range of research projects and botanical surveys and collections of rice cultivars in Bihar, Jeypore tract of Orissa and North Eastern parts (Assam, Manipur etc.) of India, Madhya Pradesh and almost all other rice growing regions of India. In our experience maximum productivity potential under normal organic maturing was observed to be nearly 9000 kg. Per hectare in the genetically upgraded indigenous rice cultivar of Madhya Pradesh. There would be many such genetic units existing elsewhere too.
GEB 24 (Madras), Safri 17 (Chhattisgarh, M.P.) and similar types in different states, developed by breeders in the past, still hold the ground, apart form scented types as Basmati, Chinnor, Dubraj, Badshah Bhog Raskadam and Ambemohar. The modern High yielding varieties Ratna, Jaya etc. will also get automatically absorbed in course of time in the pool of rice genes to increase the group of rice cultivars (Richharia, 1987)
Genetic Resources; Threat to Genetic Diversity includes Valuable Indian Genes; Indian Animal Breeds; Insect Germplasm, Micro-Organisms; Medicinal Herbs; Crop Genetic Resources; Varieties of Rice and other crops and Animal Genetic Resources.