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Traffic engineering and management is a first level post graduate course in Transportation Systems Engineering.
The course introduces the concepts of characterizing traffic, various modeling approaches, and design of facilities to control and manage traffic.
The course is designed in a modular fashion so that each module will introduce the underlying principles, current practice, ample numerical illustrations, and few case studies of broad areas of the subject.
The modules are sequenced in such a way that the course first introduces simple, but fundamental characteristics of traffic and move gradually to complex traffic management concepts.
The last module is devoted for advanced and specialized traffic facilities. Although the major focus of the course is urban vehicular traffic, some effort is taken to show how these lessons can be applied to other modes as well.
A key feature of the course is that it is well knit with the current design and analysis practice stipulated in both national and international codes, standards, and manuals.
Traffic stream characteristics; Traffic measurement procedures; Microscopic traffic flow modeling; Macroscopic and mesoscopic traffic flow modeling; Uninterrupted flow; Traffic intersection control; and Traffic impact studies.
No. of Hours
Traffic stream characteristics:
: Road user characteristics, human and vehicle characteristics; Introduction to traffic engineering
: speed, density, volume, travel time, headway, spacing, time-space diagram, time mean speed, space mean speed and their relation, relation between speeds, flow, density, fundamental diagrams; Fundamental parameters and relations of traffic flow
: Greenshield’s model, Greenberg’s logarithmic model, Underwood’s exponential model, pipe’s generalized model, multi-regime models; Traffic stream models
: Concepts and derivation, illustration, Calibration of Greenshild’s model. Moving observer method
Traffic measurement procedures:
Traffic volume measurement, equipment for flow measurements, data analysis, concepts of ADT, AADT; Measurement at a point:
: Speed measurements, 15th and 85th percentile speeds, design speed, speed distributions; Measurement over a short section
Density measurement, travel time measurement; Measurement along a length of road: GPS devices, loop detectors, video analysis, and other technologies. Automated traffic measurement:
Microscopic traffic flow modelling:
Concept of stimulus-response, general mottoes models, safety distance, pscho-physical, optimal velocity, fuzzy logic models, and applications; Car-following models:
Conceptual framework, lane selection model, gap acceptance models; Lane changing models:
Poisson distribution, headway modeling, random vehicle generation; Vehicle arrival models: : Vehicle generation, design, calibration, validation, applications, operational models. Microscopic traffic simulation
Macroscopic and mesoscopic traffic flow modelling:
Fluid flow analogy, heat flow analogy, granular flow, Lighthill-Withams theory, shock waves; Traffic flow modeling analogies:
: Flow conservation, flow transmission; Cell transmission models
: Robertson progression model, platoon movement, dispersion index, applications; Traffic progression models : Cellular automata concepts, discretization of time and space, rules for acceleration, deceleration, randomization, and vehicle updation. Discrete simulation models
Definitions, highway capacity, factors affecting LOS, HCM methods; Capacity and Level of service LOS:
Classification, operational performance measures, congestion management; Urban Street:
Characteristics, capacity and level of service; Multilane highways:
Operational considerations, capacity and level of service of a basic freeway segment, weaving operation; Freeway operations:
Merging and diverging areas; gap acceptance, speed at ramps; fixed, reactive, and predictive systems; Ramp metering: Segment capacity, free flow travel time, queue delay, transit corridor. Corridor analysis:
Traffic intersection control:
Requirements, basic driving rules, priority movements, principles of traffic control, intersections conflicts; Principles of traffic control:
Regulatory, warning, and information signs; longitudinal, transverse, and object marking; Traffic signs and road markings:
Level of service concept, priority streams, confliting traffic, critical gap and follow-up time, capacity, queue length, control delay; Uncontrolled intersection:
Channelization: channelizing devices, geometrical aspects, turning radius ;
Conflict resolution in a rotary, geometric layout, design elements, capacity of rotary; Traffic rotary: Road over bridges, under pass, overpass, trumpet interchange, diamond interchange, fully and partial clover leaf intersection. Grade separated intersection:
Traffic signal design:
Definitions, analysis of saturation headway, saturation flow, lost time, critical flows, derivation of cycle length; Elements of traffic signal:
: Phase design, cycle time determination, green splitting, pedestrian phases, and performance measures; Design principles of a traffic signal
Definitions and measurement of stopped and control delay, Webster’s delay model, oversaturated conditions; Evaluation of a traffic signal:
HCM 2000 method of analysis of a signalized intersection and determination of the level of service; Capacity and Los analysis of a signalized I/S:
Concepts of offset, common cycle length bandwidth, offset for one-way and two way streets ; Coordinated traffic signal: : Basic principles of vehicle actuation, collection of data, system architecture and algorithms. Vehicle actuated signals and Area traffic control
Specialised traffic studies:
Parking inventory, statistics, parking surveys; in-out, license palate, on-street and off-street parking ; Parking Studies:
: Accident data collection, statistics, safety audit, sfety measures; Accident Studies
Consumption models, pollutants, air quality models, mitigation measures; Fuel consumption and emission studies:
: Performance measures, intensity, duration, extent of congestion, traveler perception, remedial measures, congestion pricing; Congestion studies
Design and configuration, queuing theory, operation and maintenance issues; Toll operation:
Pedestrian counts, pedestrian volume and level of service, design principles of pedestrian facilities; Pedestrian studies:
Introduction, system architecture, performance evaluation, tools and technologies; Intelligent transportation system: Public transit management system, case studies. Pedestrian studies:
Transportation Engineering I (B. Tech).
Transportation Engineering II (B. Tech).
Roess, RP., McShane, WR. and Prassas, ES. (1998), Traffic Engineering, Prentice Hall.
May, A. D. (1990), Fundamentals of Traffic Flow, Prentice Hall.
Papacostas, C. S. (1987), Fundamentals of Transportation Engineering, Prentice Hall.
Kadiyali, LR (1987), Traffic Engineering and Transportation Planning, Khanna.
Highway Capacity Manual (2000), Transportation Research Board, USA.
Khanna, S. K. and Justo, C. E. G. (1991), Highway Engineering, Nemchand.
Pingnataro, G. J. (1970), Principles of Traffic Engineering, Mc Graw - Hill.
Traffic-Flow Theory: State-of-the-art:
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/. ADDITIONAL READINGS
FHWA Geometric design guides.
Transportation research records.
Indian Roads congress special publications.